Electronics Principles V11

Clive W. Humphris


The sine wave is the accepted way of representing an alternating voltage or current. Its wave shape is derived from the output of a voltage generator during one complete revolution using a single loop of wire. Amplitudes may be measured as Peak, Peak-to-Peak and RMS (root-mean-square).

RMS values are considered to have the equivalent energy content (heating effect) as comparable DC voltages and currents. 250V AC mains has an RMS value with a peak voltage of approximately 350V and a Peak-to-Peak value of 700V.

Unless otherwise stated AC voltage and current measurements are taken to be RMS values. Applying the appropriate formula easily makes the conversion.

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