Clive W. Humphris

**GRAPHING: Horizontal Graph: y = n. **

For this equation the value of variable y will always equal that of n for any value of x.

Which means all values for y will be shifted up or down relative to their current values by an amount of n.

As an example take y = x² + n. If n is set to zero then y will be the value for x squared across the ±x horizontal scale. If n is made -5 all values will be moved down on the graph by 5. A further example might be 2x + n where n = 3. This simply lifts up the graph by amount of 3 for a y value of 2 times x.

Where you find a value added (either a constant or a variable) appended to a graphical equation then it most probably will be to change the physical positioning of the resultant graph by that amount.

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